b. Then, between 1408 and 1414 Florence was threatened once again, this time by the King of Naples, who also died before he could successfully conquer Florence. Over the centuries: other languages had been evolving through everyday usage. The scene's relevance was enhanced by its contemporary costumes and other familiar details. Question: How can salvation be achieved? Questioning Attitude: some doubted the Church's religious authority (powers). a. Considered the greatest painter of Northern Europe. b. *This Italy itinerary is perfect if you have roundtrip tickets into and out of Rome (FCO airport). Perhaps it was even something else. What were some examples of the "powerful guilds" mentioned in the second paragraph and were they in any way similar to Bards' guilds? He supported the heliocentric theory of planetary revolution. b. Featured great achievements in literature, art, and science. This small devotional panel is painted in the style of Andrea del Verrocchio but is the work of one of his students, Lorenzo di Credi, who inherited the workshop when Andrea died. Wrote: Defense of the Seven Sacraments. b. Areopagitica: in which Milton advocated freedom of the press. h. Result: her reign strengthened Protestant feeling in England. Botticelli may have painted this while in Rome working on the Sistine Chapel. Known as the "Father of Modern Italy", he was the first to write an important piece of literature in the Vernacular. 1. There are normally 45 trains per day travelling from Milan to Florence and tickets for this journey start from 9.90 when you book in advance. Subjects like this one, taken from the writings of the ancient Roman author Livy, displayed the learning and sophistication of Renaissance patrons and were especially popular in domestic settings. b. Nepotism: appointing of relatives to Church positions. Meaning rebirth or revival --- historical period of approximately 300 years marked by a revival in art, literature, and learning. The size of this painting suggests that it was probably displayed like a frieze with other panels in the home of a wealthy Florentine family. The battered and blood-stained walls of the city enclose several buildings that could be recognized in Rome, including the dome of the Pantheon and the drums of Castel Sant'Angelo. In Hebrew, Raphael's name means "God has healed." Expensively clad citizens reenacted the journey of the three kings to Bethlehem with processions through the streets. After Lorenzo the Magnificent died in 1492, economic and political disasters put Florence in the hands of Savonarola's radical religious reformers. The heraldic colors that drape the horses probably belonged to the painting's patron, as yet unidentified. His popularity rested on the conventional piety of his images, his direct and forthright style, and his high standards of craftsmanship. Florentine 15th or 16th Century, probably after a model by Andrea del Verrocchio and Orsino Benintendi, Italian, 1440 - c. 1498, Lorenzo de' Medici, 1478/1521, painted terracotta, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1943.4.92. Of course this exodus continued after Constantinople was conquered by the Turks in 1453. The spread of these ideas resulted from religious, military, and commercial contacts. b. Trenitalia Frecce operates a train from Milano Centrale to Firenze S.M.N. Early Middle Ages: superstition and belief in alchemy held back scientific development. 6. The story of Tobit may have been particularly popular in fifteenth-century Florence because of its appeal to merchant families, whose sons were often sent to trade in far-away cities. Essentially, the answer is "no": This was an intensely religious (catholic) republic, and Roman Gods would have been considered false idols prohibited by the church and bible. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Florence and Rome, The Catholic Church, Saint Peter's and more. 12th Century: Europeans discovered paper from the Moslems. It was an invitation for scholars to debate the issue with him. Many trains stop in Bologna or Milan's Porta Garibaldi station along the way. Direct link to Rida issa's post To behonest thats lowkey . c. England: Calvinists were known as Puritans. He expressed skepticism toward accepted beliefs, condemning superstition and intolerance and urging people to live nobly. 1529: another Diet met --- ended toleration for Lutherans in Catholic German States. The Invention of Printing: Encourages Literature. His plays employed a dramatic technique to probe historical events and human character. Individual rulers would decide which religion his people would follow. a. Cosimo de' Medici. b. Henry had her condemned and put to death for treason. Among the greatest patrons in 15th-century Florence were members of the powerful Medici family, who ruled as princes, though the city was, in name, a republic. In this period, which we call the Early Renaissance, Florence is not a city in the unified country of Italy, as it is now. HUMANISM: Illustrated the Spirit of the Renaissance (a literary movement that began in 14th Century Italy.). a. Luther translated the New Testament into German. 2. If you mean, Florence NOW, well, there are traffic lights, McDonalds, Starbucks and Wifi. Lavish, even ostentatious, public display became more common, even as the fortunes of the city declined. This made it vulnerable to conquering in a period when Italian city-states would fight for power between each other. They took over papal banking monopolies from rivals in nearby Siena and became tax collectors for the pope throughout Europe. 3. 2. And, by the end of the centuryfor the first time since antiquitysome art was being made simply "for art's sake." Lutheranism Spread to Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and it became the Established Church: in Norway and Sweden. b. Doctrine and ritual remained Catholic. d. 1553: Edward died after a reign of only six years. 1632: Galileo published his Dialogue on the Two Great Systems of the World. 2.) A scholar and clever political leader. Rome is a breathtaking concentration of history, art, and charm every corner could fill your eyes, your camera, and your typical American romantic comedy. Day 3 - Best of Venice - free time. Economic: "Jealousy of the Church's Wealth". Cost of Malpensa- Rome is 59 or 59.50 depending on which airport bus you take, and for train all the way from FCO to Florence, 58. In. In this painting, Raphael holds a golden mortar used for compounding medicinal ingredients. He encouraged them to reform the Church within their borders. 2. I must beseech, why did the Duke of Milan and all the other persons threaten Florence? Renaissance Development in Italy. Luther retained only two sacraments: baptism and communion ------- he maintained the others were not authorized in the Bible. d. Parliament abolished the Act of Supremacy and all religious legislation passed under Edward. Oil paintings . Day 2 - Milan city tour. b. Particularly in sculpture and architecture---Renaissance artists often imitated classical works. Despite their delight in pagan themes, most Florentine humanists remained deeply pious. The National Gallery of Art serves the nation by welcoming all people to explore and experience art, creativity, and our shared humanity. He was Dutch and a brilliant classical scholar. 5.) Northern Netherlands: The Dutch Reformed Church, Southern Netherlands: remained Roman Catholic. During the early medieval centuries, Florence was occupied chiefly by outsiders: first by Ostrogoths in the 5th century, then by Byzantines in the 6th century, and eventually by Langobards, or Lombards. b. a. He is famous for his Laughing Cavalier. 2.) a. Maintained that Tetzel's claims were contrary to Church Doctrine. He opposed the annulment of Henry and Catherine. Once there, y ou should check out the Col osseum, Piazza di Spagna, and the Pantheon among others. When the Medici family was restored to power in Florence, Machiavelli was dismissed from office and permitted to retire to his country home where he de-voted himself to writing. However, Florence was a Republic in the sense that there was a constitution which limited the power of the nobility (as well as laborers) and ensured that no one person or group could have complete political control (so it was far from our ideal of everyone voting, in fact a very small percentage of the population had the vote). This yearning to close the gap between human existence and the divine was a frequent Neoplatonic theme. In Addition: they also depicted worldly subjects, landscapes, portraits, and scenes of everyday life. Later Renaissance painters also employed a realistic style and continued to recreate Biblical themes. Click the card to flip . The other early Italian city-states to appear in northern . 1514: Pope Leo X needed funds for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Definition. Direct link to David Alexander's post Perhaps it was even somet, Posted 5 years ago. This 9 night sample itinerary includes: Flight into Rome and out of Milan. In 1472, the city boasted 54 workshops for marble and stone; it employed 44 master gold- and silversmiths, and at least thirty master painters. As a result, the Visconti took over control of Milan and ruled over the city-state until the 15th century. c. Simony: selling appointments to Church offices. Renaissance painting emphasized realism, attention to detail, and a desire for perfection. The Adoration of the Magi. Direct link to David Alexander's post The phones, electricity, , Posted 3 years ago. Ever since Georgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists (1550, revised and enlarged 1568), the study of Renaissance art has been inextricably tied to the concept of patronage. Early 1600's: Kepler proved Copernicus correct, but only mathematically. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. The assassins, members and supporters of the Pazzi family, banking rivals of the Medici, awaited their signal. Revived interest, chiefly among educated people, in literature and writing. a. Individualism: a desire for a direct relationship between the individual and God. 1 / 20. c. His Divine Comedy, a long poem in which Dante describes an imaginary trip through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven during which one of his guides is the Roman poet Virgil. However, in the summer of 1348 the Black Death struck, reducing the population by half. 3. d. Michelangelo also designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. a Florentine humanist who had a number of patrons and followers in Rome. * Nepotism, Simony, and the Sale of Indulgences. a. Aristarchus-200's B.C.-theorized that the sun was the center of the universe. a. a. a. 2. 5. The people of ancient Rome were divided into two classes: wealthy, aristocratic patricians and poorer commoners called plebians. e. In painting he is best known for his Self Portrait, The Last Supper, and the Mona Lisa. This is just my advice, and you'll get other suggestions, but I might recommend something more like this: 1) Rome (3D), 2) Train somewhere less big than Florence, like Arezzo (in Tuscany). LOGISTICS: Traveling from Florence to Rome is a breeze on the 1.5 hour direct train. ), each with their owngovernment (some were ruled by despots, and others were republics). Commenda: a contract between a merchant and "merchant adventurer" who agreed to take goods to distant locations and return with the proceeds (for 1/3 of profits . Many doctrines were the same as the Catholic Church ----- however, it had been influenced by Protestant teachings. In 1537 Charles V installed Cosimo de Medici (Cosimo I) as official duke of Florence (grand duke of Tuscany after 1569). Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492) was the catalyst for an enormous amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen to commission works from the leading artists of Florence, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Direct link to drszucker's post A full citation can be fo, Posted a year ago. "With iron," he said, "and not with gold, Rome buys her freedom." The city generally declined under prolonged Medici rule, a process that was marked only by the extended reign of Cosimo III (16701723) and the end of the family with the death of his son, Gian Gastone. In the late fifteenth century, Florence had more woodcarvers than butchers, suggesting that art, even more than meat, was a necessity of life. Vigilantes patrolled the streets, and citizens consigned luxury goods, including untold numbers of paintings and other works of art, to the consuming flames of bonfires. Filippino was the son of the artist Fra Filippo Lippi. d. Bishops and Abbots who had become protestants had to resign and give up their land (it remained the property of the Catholic Church). Soon after, Florence annexed itself to the new Kingdom of Italy, serving as its capital during the period 186570. A painter associated with Venice and known for his portraits of famous people and his scenes from mythology and the Bible, such as the Assumption of the Virgin. b. Rubens (1577-1640) -- depicted action in religious and historical paintings. 1. According to legend, Rome was founded by brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C.E. 4 Lorenzo's joust featured spectacular ephemeral decorations made by the leading artists of the day: his banner for the occasion was . Founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C., Rome once ruled the entire known world. Day 4 - Free time - Venice to Florence. Let's see how the two cities . Filippino Lippi, Italian, 1457 - 1504, Tobias and the Angel, c. 1475/1480, oil and tempera (?) c. Jane died of natural causes shortly after Edward's birth. b. The works in this tour date from the time of Lorenzo de' Medici, the Magnificent, whom Machiavelli called "the greatest patron of literature and art that any prince has ever been.". a. The northern Italian cities developed international trade: Genoa, Venice, Milan 1. The country also hosts some of the world's renowned brands such as Gucci, Prada, Armani and many others. Direct link to Wendy Vo's post I think it is just the wo, Posted 6 years ago. Jacopo del Sellaio, Italian, 1441/1442 - 1493, Saint John the Baptist, c. 1480, oil on panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1939.1.283. I'm just wondering, did they worship the Roman Gods in Florence at that time? 3. Direct link to Leigh's post What were some examples o, Posted 8 years ago. The Arti included seven major guilds (collectively known as the arti maggiori), five middle guilds (arti mediane) and nine minor guilds (arti minori). 3. In 1494, shortly after the death of Lorenzo, French armies under King Charles VIII invaded Italy. Most telling is the axe sunken into the tree trunk at the left edge of the painting, which refers to Luke 3:9: "every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down." The Florentine citizens interpreted these military "victories" as signs of God's favor and protection. Acclaimed British historian Hibbert's latest work focuses on three members of the notorious Borgia family of Spain, who came to power in Rome with the election of Alfonso de Borgia (1378-1458), the scholarly bishop of Valencia, to the papacy as Calixtus III. Lorenzo escaped to the sacristy, remaining there while the Pazzi partisans attempted to seize the government. Day 6 - Departure to Rome. Although Lorenzo himself commissioned relatively few major works, he was an important arbiter of taste. Or it may beest from an earlier encounter/and or disagreement between the two city states at the time, not unlike yon Sparta and Athens in ancient Greece during 431 BC? Impact: printing tremendously increased output and accuracy and decreased the cost. Rearing horses in the background, for example, appear to reflect the colossal horses of the Dioscuri. Henry converted to Catholicism: political com promise to gain control of Paris. The open window and mourning dove were familiar symbols of death, alluding to the flight of the soul and the deceased's passage to the afterlife. Florence flows in its 15th-century brilliance; there's the Uffizi Gallery - home to works by Michelangelo and Sandro Botticelli - and the handsome Ponte Vecchio bridge. Among the earliest city-states of Italy, that already started to emerge in the 7th century, were the Duchy of Naples, Duchy of Amalfi, Gaeta and the Republic of Venice which, although nominally under Byzantine control, were effectively independent. b. The half-round shape of this painting, called a lunette, was used most often over doorways. It issued the Edict of Worms: this edict prohibited the printing and sale of Luther's works and for anyone to give aid and shelter to Luther. East Building Political parties grew up along the issues of aggressive expansion and preservation of peace; the former policy was embraced by the Blacks (Neri; the rich merchants), the latter by the Whites (Bianchi; the lesser citizens). Republic of Florence. His strict rule came to an end in 1498, but with it closed a phase of Florentine greatness. 2. c. Mary Tudor: the only child of Henry and Catherine of Aragon to survive. Direct link to David Alexander's post Giorgia, my friend, this , Posted 4 years ago. There are several answers to that question: Extraordinary wealth accumulated in Florence during this period among a growing middle and upper class of merchants and bankers. b. Galileo made a telescope from work that had been done by a Dutchman. a. Once the capital of an ancient republic and empire whose armies and polity defined the Western world in antiquity and left . d. Congregation: governed by a group of men called a Consistory. (Or perhaps they were just that disfavored.). 15th Century: Florence came under the control (rule) of the Medici family. b. Was there a Pope Giovanni Medici? In the 1480s and 1490s, the Dominican friar Savonarola gave impassioned sermons attacking luxury and the amorality of ancient gods. One of the early architectural achievements of the Renaissance was the massive dome on the Florence Cathedral. Intellectual: Impact of the Renaissance. Among them: Two bishops and Archbishop Cranmer (67 years old) were burned at the stake. Early Renaissance painters dealt with religious themes but with a lifelike approach. We know, for example, that Jacopo worked with Filippo Lippi, Ghirlandaio, and Botticelli. The flight time comes in at about 2 hours 30 minutes. a. Arthur: older brother of Henry who died before he could become king. In his personal memoir, he talks about his motivations for these and other commissions, noting that . What Italian states signed the Peace of Lodi in 1454? In the Middle Ages, Latin was the language of literature, of the Church, and of educated people. b. * Differences: Services in English not Latin. The second and third journeys were to Milan, for Wolfgang to complete operas that had been commissioned there on the . 1. Although the archangel is usually shown with a mortar or medicine box, his identity here is established by the presence of Tobias holding a fish. These destinations are connected by trains. * it is still retained by the present British Monarch. a. Direct link to Felicity K.'s post I must beseech, why did t, Posted 3 years ago. The leading artistic centers of 16th-century central Italy were _____ . Day 1 - Arrival in Milan. Milan has a serious arts scene, breathtaking sites, and gastronomical delights. b. D. Machiavelli's The Prince represented an attempt to find ways to . Milan is the capital of the Lombardy region in northern Italy and is the wealthiest city in Italy. The Society of Jesus . I think the author said that Reinaissance means the revival/rebirth of classical, ancient Greek/Roman value! Departure to Venice. Located on the Mediterranean, Italy had absorbed stimulating new ideas from the more advanced Byzantine and Moslem Worlds. Their journey was successful: not only was the money recovered, but medicine made from a monstrous fish Tobias encounters along the way cures Tobit's blindness. From the late 10th century onward, Florence prospered, and, under the rule of Countess Matilda of Tuscany (10691115), it became the leading city in Tuscany. The arts were Cosimo Medici's passion, and it was as patron of the arts that he arguably had his most significant influence. 1. a. In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest cities in Northern Italy. Minority: Calvinist members of the French Middle Class. Partly in self-defense, Florence became a major territorial power alongside Venice, Milan, and Naples. Notable Works: The Night Watch, The anatomy Lesson, and Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer. A Frenchman who wrote a series of essays. Pirates, Italy has so many amazing cities, instead of picking 1 you could head off to 4 on this awesome city trip we have come across.. _____ was the first Flemish artist to receive international fame. The citys podesta, or chief magistrate and police chief, could be selected only from the major guilds. Henry VIII came to the English Throne in 1509. a. Additional Law: abolished all monasteries and the king seized all Church Land. b. Enter or exit from Constitution Avenue or Madison Drive. 1550: Calvinism had spread,but had not become dominant in all areas. It also provided for frequent changes of office to ensure that no group or individual could get control of the state; thus, the nine priors who constituted the Signoria (the governmental body) were each elected for a mere two months. Every day, Italo has 0 trains scheduled to depart from Milan to Florence and from Florence to Milan. b. However, if you're traveling on a slower . Known for the Frescos he painted in the Papal Library at Rome. 6. During free time there are optional tours that may be added to enhance the trip based on your interests. In 1400 Florence was engaged in a struggle with the Duke of Milan. The poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who is buried in Piazzale Donatello, the small English cemetery, noted that the city was cheap, tranquil, cheerful and beautiful. The Horne Museum, near Santa Croce, and the Stibbert Museum, in the north, are examples of houses and collections left by foreigners to their adopted city. Many of the ceremonies and the organization of the Church were also the same as the Catholic Church. 2. 1. d. He devised the possibility of a parachute and a flying machine. Stay in a nice B&B there for a few days. This is just my advice, and you'll get other suggestions, but I might recommend something more like this: 1) Rome (3D), 2) Train somewhere less big than Florence, like Arezzo (in Tuscany). Shortly before this work was painted, however, the elaborate pageantry of the festival was curtailed. hourly. b. Ignatius of Loyola. d. Sale of Indulgences: accepting money for church forgiveness of sins. The painting's suggestion of reward for fair dealing may have been equally welcome. Their knowledge of the source of the classical orders and ideas formed greatly the Renaissance. 1450: printing with movable type was invented by a German, Johan Gutenberg. Henry VIII appointed Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury. 2.) As the 1400s progressed, however, patrons became increasingly interested in personal fame and worldly prestige. 3) Train up to Venice, Explore Venice for 3 Days. A humorist who portrayed a comic world of giants whose adventures satirized education, politics, and philosophy. Botticelli's painting seems to reflect this new concern. c. She married Philip, son of Charles V and heir to the Spanish throne (her cousin). Giovanni Rucellai, a major patron of art and architecture in fifteenth-century Florence, paid Leon Battista Alberti to construct the Palazzo Rucellai and the faade of Santa Maria Novella, both high-profile and extremely costly undertakings. A city-state run during the Renaissance by the Medici family. 3. a. #Italians demanded the removal of #NATO bases from their land and restoration of relations with #Russia In Rome, Florence, Milan, Genoa and a number of other #Italian cities, rallies were held against arms supplies to #Kiev, as well as against anti-#Russian #sanctions #USA #EU . The classical architecture of the manger and the crumbling ruins also have theological significance. What was a civic humanist? In Renaissance Italy, work for artists came via commissions from wealthy patrons. Term. In summary, why visit these Rome, Florence, Venice or Milan? b. Lutheran: Justification By Faith --- salvation would be granted through faith alone. 05:20. Probably this one was placed over the entrance to a private chapel or sacristy, but its original location remains unknown. 2. Act of Succession had been passed by Parliament prior to Henry's death. Admission: attempted to force Luther to state whether he was a rebellious clergyman or not. This spirit of republican virtue appealed to fifteenth-century Florentines, who regarded ancient Rome as a paradigm for their own city. Great Schism (1378-1417)--- Rival popes at both Avignon and Rome claiming to be the true pope and struggling for Church supremacy. (Such an unambiguous pursuit of power by leaders at this time was given codification in 1513 by Niccol Machiavelli in his treatise The Prince.) In all but name, Florence was now ruled by a Medici prince, whose position resembled that of the tyrants in other Italian cities such as Milan, Ferrara, Mantua, and Urbino. Overview c. Much of the land was given to supporters of Henry---creating a "new nobility" personally loyal to him and his policies. The murder of Giuliano shocked Florence, and a number of portraits were ordered for public display to serve both as memorials and as warnings to other plotters. Since large commissions required the efforts of many painters, backgrounds, still-life details, and secondary figures were often painted by assistants. c. Prohibiting Usury restricted the growth of business. Some scholars, noting the lowered eyelids, suggest this portrait was painted posthumously from a death mask. As his style matured, Filippino moved away from the linearity of Botticelli. A Florentine who sculpted a series of exquisite biblical scenes for the bronze doors of the baptistry in Florence. Published: April 9, 2021 at 7:05 am. His father, however, died when the boy was only twelve, about the age when he would have begun his artistic training. He is best known for his Italian Prose in a collection of short stories called The Decameron. g. Mary died in 1558 leaving no heir to succeed her after a reign of five years. This broke up the old alliance of Milan, Naples, and Florence, while the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent of Florence in 1492 removed an influence for peace. According to legend, Rome was founded by brothers Romulus and Remus in 753 BCE atop Rome's Palatine Hill. Florence in the Early Renaissance by Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris The Renaissance really gets going in the early years of the fifteenth century in Florence. We normally think of a Republic as a government where everyone votes for representatives who will represent their interests to the government (think of theUnited States pledge of allegiance: "and to the republic for which it stands"). c. In military engineering - he improved the method of loading cannons and devised equipment for scaling walls. Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese near Florence (Italy) where his father was the local magistrate. Florentia ("The Flourishing Town") was founded in 59 bce as a colony for soldiers of the armies of Rome and was laid out as a rectangular garrison town ( castrum) below the hilltop Etruscan town of Faesulae. c. By satirizing social evils, Erasmus encouraged people to think about reforms. What does the author mean by 'rebirth of the Renaissance'? Direct link to michael.springmeyer's post why did they start bringi, Posted a year ago. a. The works in this tour date from the time of Lorenzo de' Medici, the Magnificent, whom Machiavelli called "the greatest patron of literature and art that any prince has ever been." Church Opposition: Galileo was called before the Inquisition and was forced to recant or face being accused a heretic. The volume on display is a . 4. THE COUNTER REFORMATION: The Church to defend itself against further successes of the Protestant Movement. a. 1. Rome to Florence train takes you north through Italy's scenic Lazio and Tuscany regions. Filippino's education was taken over by his father's pupil, Botticelli, and their association lasted many years. Perhaps because they had a different manifestation of government? Among the greatest patrons in 15th-century Florence were members of the powerful Medici family, who ruled as princes, though the city was, in name, a republic. Living a pure and righteous life was the only way one could prove he was one of the Elect. Henry was married six times: He was only survived by Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward. Following a Napoleonic interlude, Leopold II of Habsburg was the last outside ruler (182459). d. English efforts failed: Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas More. Sandro Botticelli, Italian, 1446 - 1510, The Adoration of the Magi, c. 1478/1482, tempera and oil on panel, Andrew W. Mellon Collection, 1937.1.22. Giuliano Medici, the younger brother of Lorenzo, was nursing a bad knee on Easter Day 1478 and had to be helped to the cathedralby the very men who were plotting to kill him and his brother during mass. He attracted many followers, including, it seems, Botticelli, who abandoned mythological subjects.